Modified Orthogonal Cultural Identification Scale:

Oetting, E. R. & Beauvais, F. (1990-1991). Orthogonal identification theory: The cultural identification of minority adolescents. International Journal of the Addictions, 25, 655-685.

Oetting, E. R., Swaim, R. C., & Chairella, M. C. (1998). Factor structure and invariance of the Orthogonal Cultural Identification Scale among American Indian and Mexican American youth. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 20, 131-154.